How can you make sure you’re eating a balanced diet? Forget frantically calculating the relative benefits of bananas, tomatoes, spinach, and kale. Just think in technicolor. The compounds that give fruits and vegetables their colour also have unique nutritional properties, so by eating a wide array of colours, you can maximise these benefits. A colourful diet protects your body against a multitude of ailments: cancer, heart disease, arthritis, and vision loss, among others. NMTBP brings you a handy colour-coded food guide:
Fruits with a red hue, such as tomatoes, red peppers, strawberries, raspberries, cranberries and cherries, contain lycopene, a reddish pigment and nutrient. Research studies indicate that this substance protects against a variety of cancers, including that of the prostate, stomach, and lung. As an antioxidant, lycopene protects cell structures and DNA against the nefarious effects of free radicals—small particles that damage healthy cells and allow tumour cells to develop. Indeed, one study in Nutrition and Cancer showed that lycopene was better than two other antioxidants—alpha and beta carotene—at stopping uterine, breast, and lung cancer cells from developing in test tubes
Oranges, carrots, butternut squash, sweet potato, peaches, mangoes, peppers and pumpkin are brimming with cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene—two substances that reduce the risk for a variety of mental and physical ailments. For example, cryptoxanthin protects against arthritis and cancer, while beta-carotene keeps the mind sharp. In a 2005 study from the Archives of Internal Medicine, cryptoxanthin protected individuals from developing rheumatoid arthritis, even as other antioxidants did not; other studies suggest it reduces risk for lung cancer. Beta-carotene, for its part, kept cognition and memory from declining in a group of doctors who took part in an 18-year study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine
Spinach, lettuce, watercress, cucumber, broccoli, sprouts, green beans, peas, apples, grapes and kiwi fruit protect the eyes and the heart, among other important body parts. Lutein and zeaxanthin, two nutrients found in these foods, keep us from going blind by reducing the risk of cataracts in old age. Even better are the effects that greens have on the heart. For every daily serving you eat, you reduce your risk for heart disease by 11 percent, found a study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Leafy greens also contain vitamins A and C, which help keep the body from creating oxidized cholesterol—the stuff that sticks in the arteries and clogs them
The dark red-purple hues of blackberries, blueberries, figs, plums, raisins, aubergine, red cabbage – even wine, are derived from anthocyanins and resveratrol. These prevent tumour growth and may have anti-inflammatory properties that reduce pain from arthritis and protect against heart disease. In addition, anthocyanins and resveratrol can protect against liver disease, reduce blood pressure, fight ageing and improve memory. Blueberries can aid weight loss.Even in individuals undergoing cancer treatment, berries may be helpful—there is some evidence they aid in chemotherapy by diminishing cancer cells’ ability to survive the onslaught of poison contained in anti-cancer drugs
Potatoes, onions, garlic, mushrooms and cauliflower all contain antioxidants including beta-glucans. Allicin, an antibiotic and antifungal compound, is also found in garlic, leeks and onions. Potatoes are packed with vitamin C. Allicin fights cell damage that can lead to serious disease. Beta-glucans boost numbers of infection-busting white blood cells
Bananas, lemons, sweetcorn, pineapple, grapefruit and peppers all contain carotenoids, which may cut your risk of developing certain cancers, as well as giving you a healthy glow. They cut your heart disease risk and boost your immune system, too
Full of Brown Beans
Although not technically fruits or vegetables, beans can play an important role in maintaining a healthy diet. Lentils, black beans, and chickpeas are an excellent source of folate, a B vitamin that helps to prevent damage to arteries by reducing homocysteine. Homocysteine, an amino acid, can cause harm to arteries and allow clots to form more easily, which in turn ups the risk for heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. By reducing blood levels of homocysteine, folate keeps blood vessels pristine
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